He was expelled from the USSR and stripped of his citizenship. He went to live in West Germany and later the US
He returned to Russia in 1994 and died in Moscow in 2008
And when "having neither" is not an option? When the only thing that will stop a Communist takeover is an equally violent opposition? Sometimes, there are no good choices, and you have to choose the "less bad" one.
Yes, a lot of people died during the Spanish Civil War. Then the war was over...
He remained always a Russian patriot. (Note: "Russian patriot", but never a fan of Communism).
I read his "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich" in high school as an assignment, a short fictionalized account of life in the camps, then went on to read the Gulag Archipelago in college...